Start by marking “Muhammad: Kisah Hidup Nabi Berdasarkan Sumber Klasik” as Martin Lings mampu menghadirkan kesederhanaan maupun keagungan cerita . .. Turki, Belanda, Tamil, Arab, Jerman, Urdu, dan sekarang, Indonesia. .. If you need a link to the pdf or to the audiobook, don't hesitate to hit me up ;p more. Martin Lings- seera book. IdentifierMuhammad-MartinLings. Identifier-arkark:/ /t54f53m9f. OcrABBYY FineReader Pages The House of God. A Great Loss. Quraysh of the Hollow. The Recovery of a Loss. The Vow to Sacrifice a Son. The Need for a Prophet. The Year of the Elephant.
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Beberapa biografi Nabi Muhammad SAW yang isinya bisa Bahasa Inggris, dan untuk bahasa Indonesia Anda bisa klik di link yang telah kami sediakan. Tajweed Rules in PDF Martin Lings & Sean Barrett (narrator). especially in Indonesia, after Indonesia entered the milieu of reform as a new .. others (Martin Lings (Abu Bakr Siraj al-Din), 44). (Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia: Fahmina Institute, ). 2. Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources (Rochester, Vt.: Inner. Traditions.
The early modern era, approximately from the Reformation to the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon at the end of the eighteenth century, saw a series of intellectual and religious movements that challenged long-held ideas about God, humanity, and reason. The Enlightenment sought to replace irrationality and superstition with rationality. As theology ceded some ground to secular humanism, some tried to set all religions and their founders on the same playing field, while others worked to exalt one religion by denigrating others.
In the developing study of world religions, European scholarship on Islam was influential in forming the category of religion. The existence of and proofs for prophecy in general had been a significant topic of debate among philosophers and theologians for centuries, and Muslim figures had joined the fray between the ninth and eleventh centuries, with rationalist figures arguing that claims of revelation did not survive logical scrutiny.
This book was born of rumor and innuendo; a thirteenth-century pope accused the Holy Roman emperor of the time of having written a book condemning Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. One Catholic cleric, for instance, sought to rehabilitate the reputations of Moses and Jesus but affirmed that Muhammad and Zoroaster had been impostors. Accusations of fraud could also be levied against dissenters within a tradition. It echoes medieval accusations that Muhammad is an antichrist while debunking several popular legends and rejecting the enduring accusation that Muhammad was demonically possessed.
Instead, Prideaux charges Muhammad with deliberate fraud. Precursors of the Unitarians, Socinians levied radical criticisms of Trinitarian doctrine, prompting obvious comparisons to Islam and Muhammad. In the twenty-first century, Unitarianism has a reputation as wishy-washy liberalism. Prideaux, though, perceived Socinians as a major threat to his preferred kind of Christianity. Prideaux, too, used Muhammad to make his point because he was not admired by those Prideaux was attempting to persuade.
Opposed approaches to the study of Muhammad and Islam came to coexist: recognizably positive, or at least deliberately nonhostile, alongside harsh condemnations. Scholarship on Arabic and Islam in western Europe played a key role in this process.
Fascination with the East was by no means limited to universities. British and continental writers were drawn to partly known, mostly imagined exotic realms.
Beyond this concern for capturing a certain individual essence, biographers focused on Great Men and their Important Deeds. Military heroes and antiheroes figured large in the European imagination, and biography increasingly conveyed this information to a reading public. Medieval obsession with disgust gave way to a modern scrutiny of deeds; concern with legend became preoccupation with fact.
Not long thereafter, when he was nine or a little older, he accompanied his uncle on a caravan journey to Syria, during which he was miraculously shaded from the harsh desert sun. The caravan stopped at a monastery in Bostra, but Muhammad remained hidden until a monk asked Abu Talib to produce him. The monk, Bahira, questioned Muhammad closely and saw the seal of prophecy between his shoulder blades.
His mother dreamed of illumination. The Bahira story has a distorted reflection in early Christian works, which often unspooled from this fateful encounter. In Syriac sources, a renegade monk usually called Sergius plots with Muhammad to deceive his compatriots. In European sources, the monk was often Nestur or occasionally Arius, attesting to the intertwining of ideas about Muhammad with Christian heresies.
The question of the relation of Muhammad to other religious traditions, particularly Christianity, remained central even as medieval concern with heresy became early modern preoccupation with imposture. A steady trickle of books on Muhammad had appeared in western Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but the number of publications increased dramatically in the nineteenth century.
In England and America—increasingly a locus of missionary fervor—popularizers supplemented scholarly publications based on newly available early Arabic sources with books and tracts targeting missionaries and general audiences. Although perennial themes persisted—miracles, sex, violence—non-Muslims posed new critiques of Muslim accounts and, even more fundamentally, focused attention on historical accuracy.
The quest for correct information about Muhammad had precedent in the work of early clerical opponents of Islam, who aimed to know Muslim doctrines the better to refute them. Their preoccupations intersected with those of Muslim religious thinkers, traditional scholars, and Western-educated reformers.
In a series of exchanges, mostly occurring in English, among British scholars and missionaries, Indian Muslim elites, and Hindu reformers, new visions of Muhammad were hammered out. Historical chronicles and biographical dictionaries, like more straightforward biographies, use complex organizing principles and coded language to assert authoritative versions of events, even as they include information that is unlikely, contradictory, or unflattering. Print made it available to Arabists who had no comparable manuscripts to consult; Latin made it accessible to scholars who did not read Arabic.
Scholars working in India, where in some regions a Muslim minority constituted a ruling elite, were largely responsible for these developments. Europeans were instrumental in editing and publishing manuscripts of early texts, sometimes with accompanying translations.
Indeed, scholarly work in German—which had recently replaced Latin publications for university careers in Germany—was mostly read by other Europeans. Sprenger was widely read in India in part because his Life appeared in English. Carlyle, though, presumed a secure identity that would be neither offended nor threatened by any perceived slight to or glorification of Muhammad.
The French invasion and occupation of Egypt in had marked a decisive shift in British and French colonial patterns. Western European provincial power struggles, such as the Napoleonic wars, played out on the world stage. French control spread in Africa and receded in India; the British expanded their control throughout India while maintaining African and Asian colonies.
Eventually, the British came to dominate in Egypt as well, invading in and establishing a protectorate that, as the Ottoman Empire declined and eventually collapsed, took increasingly stringent measures to secure British commercial, diplomatic, and military interests.
Biographical writing on Muhammad was also deeply shaped by the increasing popularity of the biographical genre in western Europe, particularly England, as well as by European scholarly interest in the historical Jesus. The latter, part of a new biblical studies agenda, sought to integrate archaeology and critical textual methods with historical scholarship.
Interwoven with these developments was a romantic sensibility. Carlyle, deeply influenced by the German writer Goethe, linked ideas of genius with notions of greatness. Carlyle was less interested in Muhammad himself than in what the Prophet allowed Carlyle to say about humanity as a whole.
Truth was neither bound to Europe nor exclusive to Christianity. It seems then that this Mahomet was not a quack? Not a bit of him! I guess than almost any of you! He was a committed Christian, a serious Arabist, and a member of the Bengal Civil Service, serving nearly four decades in India — in former Mughal territory in the northwest, rising to the position of provincial lieutenant governor.
Muir tells how the Reverend Karl Pfander, stymied in his efforts to convert Muslims, implored him to write a biography suitable for evangelism. Muir reviewed extant missionary Lives and found them sorely wanting: error riddled and off-putting in tone. Pfander originally desired, and Muir set out to write, a synthetic, sensitive, Christianizing life in the vernacular.
The project took on a life of its own, though, expanding and shifting in intent and audience as well as language. Though ultimately unsuited for use as an evangelical tract, it was widely read by missionaries and by Indian Muslims with sufficient English competence. It wove a handful of topics— authenticity of revelation, character, behavior with women—into a source-critical narrative history, fusing polemic and scholarship. Muhammadan Controversies The evangelical movement of which Muir formed part was far from the only religious contestation occurring in India.
The nineteenth century was fertile ground for religious controversies and new identitarian movements both within and between religious communities.
In keeping with broader currents of reform in the Arabian Peninsula and Arab world, Indian Muslims were engaged in debates over authority, tradition, and the proper approach to matters of worship.
Broader revivalist currents, including movements originating in the Arabian Peninsula, reverberated among Muslims in India. The Ahmadiyya have their origin in the same period in the work and life of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad — Eventually, his claims to be the promised messiah alienated many of his supporters, but he continued to have active followers in colonial India. After his death, the movement split over whether he also fulfilled a prophetic role; both groups have proselytized actively, especially in the United States and Europe.
To discuss these as intra-Muslim shifts, as I have just done, already misrepresents the situation because it presumes that Muslim and Hindu were neatly distinguished at the outset and then fractured further. In fact, the development of these religious identities was less the precondition for than the outcome of nineteenth-century developments.
Beginning in the eighteenth century, exclusivity and purity as religious values came to be increasingly celebrated by at least some elite thinkers, resulting in less crossover. A swifter process of polemical exchange in periodicals, pamphlets, and other print. A writer throughout this period, Lings' output increased in the last quarter of his life. While his thesis work on Ahmad al-Alawi had been well regarded, his most famous work was a biography of Muhammad , written in , which earned him acclaim in the Muslim world and prizes from the governments of Pakistan and Egypt.
He died on 12 May In addition to his writings on Sufism, Lings was a Shakespeare scholar. His contribution to Shakespeare scholarship was to point out the deeper esoteric meanings found in Shakespeare's plays, and the spirituality of Shakespeare himself. A Perspective. An Interview With Dr. Martin Lings. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the footballer and football manager, see Martin Ling.
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